Capecitabine is an orally-administered chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of metastatic breast and colorectal cancers. Capecitabine is a prodrug, that is enzymatically converted to fluorouracil (antimetabolite) in the tumor, where it inhibits DNA synthesis and slows growth of tumor tissue.
Antineoplastic Agents Immunosuppressive Agents Antimetabolites Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic Prodrugs Antineoplastic and Immunomodulating Agents Pyrimidine Analogues Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inducers
Capecitabine 500 MG
For the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to both paclitaxel and an anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimen. May also be used in combination with docetaxel for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in patients who have failed to respond to, or recurred or relasped during or following anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Capecitabine is used alone as an adjuvant therapy following the complete resection of primary tumor in patients with stage III colon cancer when monotherapy with fluroprymidine is preferred. The use or capecitabine in combination regimens for advanced gastric cancer is currently being investigated.
Capecitabine is a fluoropyrimidine carbamate with antineoplastic activity indicated for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and colon cancer. It is an orally administered systemic prodrug that has little pharmacologic activity until it is converted to fluorouracil by enzymes that are expressed in higher concentrations in many tumors. Fluorouracil it then metabolized both normal and tumor cells to 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP).
Capecitabine is a prodrug that is selectively tumour-activated to its cytotoxic moiety, fluorouracil, by thymidine phosphorylase, an enzyme found in higher concentrations in many tumors compared to normal tissues or plasma. Fluorouracil is further metabolized to two active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP), within normal and tumour cells. These metabolites cause cell injury by two different mechanisms. First, FdUMP and the folate cofactor, N5-10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, bind to thymidylate synthase (TS) to form a covalently bound ternary complex. This binding inhibits the formation of thymidylate from 2'-deaxyuridylate. Thymidylate is the necessary precursor of thymidine triphosphate, which is essential for the synthesis of DNA, therefore a deficiency of this compound can inhibit cell division. Secondly, nuclear transcriptional enzymes can mistakenly incorporate FUTP in place of uridine triphosphate (UTP) during the synthesis of RNA. This metabolic error can interfere with RNA processing and protein synthesis through the production of fraudulent RNA.
Readily absorbed through the GI tract (~70%)
Metabolized by thymidine phosphorylase to fluoruracil.
Capecitabine and its metabolites are predominantly excreted in urine; 95.5% of administered capecitabine dose is recovered in urine. Fecal excretion is minimal (2.6%). The major metabolite excreted in urine is FBAL which represents 57% of the administered dose.About 3% of the administered dose is excreted in urine as unchanged drug.
45-60 minutes for capecitabine and its metabolites.
Take 12 hours apart, within 30 minutes of the end of breakfast and dinner to reduce nausea.
Upset stomach or throwing up. Many small meals, good mouth care, sucking hard, sugar-free candy, or chewing sugar-free gum may help. - Loose stools (diarrhea). - Feeling tired or weak. - Swelling in the feet or hands. Belly pain. Eye irritation. Skin irritation. Mouth irritation or sores. Using a soft toothbrush or cotton swabs and rinsing the mouth may help. Do not use mouth rinses that have alcohol in them. Anemia, low white blood cell count, and low platelet count.